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Donnan H. Such a radical reduction of mental and emotional states leaves the bodily expression of these states dumbed down, even expressionless. The four basic ways to encourage people are: Gifts Affirmation Quality time You may find that you are personally more accepting or dismissive of one or more of these types of encouragement.

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Export citation Views: The article explores the connections between social, political, economic and ethnic processes in the Ukrainian-Romanian borderland.

The aim is to describe how borderlanders work out strategies to overcome the contradictions inherent in the state border.

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The study is based on ethnographical fieldwork participant and non-participant observation conducted in a small town, a former mining centre, in the region of Transcarpathia in Western Ukraine. First, the collapse of the communist dictatorships in Ukraine and Romania resulted in the opening of the border and an increase in cross-border contacts.

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However, in the first decade of the 21st century, Romania tightened its passport and visa regulations for Ukrainian citizens. Another factor is the complete disintegration of the mining industry and local labour market, resulting in significant changes in occupational patterns and a greater role of the border in respect of labour migration and shuttle trade.

Keywords: borderland, mobility, Transcarpathia, ethnic minorities, strategically situated ethnography This article explores the correlations between social, political, economic and ethnic processes in the Ukrainian-Romanian borderland in the context of the European Union EU proximity and regional historical legacies.

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Some of these phenomena — border infrastructure and its imprint in the local landscapevisa policies, local cross-border links and cooperation — can be seen as part of the wider processes associated with the eastern frontiers of the European Union in general. Others are consequences of the catastrophic economic situation in Ukraine — unemployment, low wages, labour migration.

Finally, aspects of ethnic composition and language usage are primarily embedded in the regional and local context.

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The study is based on ethnographical fieldwork conducted in a small town or to be precise, an urban-type settlement in the region of Transcarpathia in Western Ukraine.

In this article I focus on how the locally encountered daily life practices are shaped by the above-mentioned processes and contexts. I pay particular attention to changes of and at the state borders, as well as the consequences of economic and political developments in the region. Thus, I present local specificity as set in history and in political processes related to the European integration EU expansioncross-border neighbourliness as well as border and visa policies.

I then argue that observed local strategies to overcome the lack of regular employment and poverty, including migration and shuttle trade, real dynamics social dating online be understood as a manifestation of individual and group agency under the conditions of an uncertain political and economic situation.

A visitor, encountering one of the oldest local inhabitants, asks about his life. The visitor expresses surprise and how much of the world the old man has seen.

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A town at the changing border Transcarpathia or Transcarpathian District; Ukr. The region is characterised by a mixed ethnic composition: apart from Ukrainians and a difficult to estimate number of people referred to as Rusyns or RutheniansTranscarpathia is inhabited by Hungarians, Romanians, Roma, Slovaks, Germans, Russians and dating simplitate modele de epocă nations of the former USSR.

Solotvyno Rom. Slatina, Hung.

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However, I believe that the statistics should be seen merely as real dynamics social dating online rough indication, as there are a significant number of ethnically mixed families, unmeasured in terms of population statistics, whose ethnic identity is either unclear or different from the one declared in the census. There have also been recent social and demographic processes influencing the ethnic composition and social stratification like emigration or the settling of ethnic Romanians from the neighbouring, wealthier villages of Nyzhna Apsha Dibrova and Bila Tserkva.

The built-up area of Solotvyno ends only tens of metres from the river, which forms the state border. Until the s, the access line was demarcated by the posts and the no longer existing dismantled fence, while the border ran along the middle of the river, as it still does now.

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Nowadays, some of the blue-yellow concrete border posts stand just a few metres from the inhabited buildings, but they no longer delimit the accessible space as the river bank is easily approachable. It was only in independent Ukraine that crossing this border became possible, first by train from the nearby village of Teresva and only since that is, already after Romania introduced visa requirements for Ukrainian citizens across the Solotvyno-Sighet bridge.

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The river can also be regarded as a boundary, separating territories of common history and similar ethnic and linguistic composition. Crossing the bridge to Sighet, Solotvynians are required to apply for visas that are issued by the Romanian Consulate in the city of Chernivtsy, at a distance of kilometres.

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Obtaining a visa requires two visits, and the visa cost is 50 euros. Carrying it does not guarantee permission to cross the border. From the beginning of its existence — and the oldest mentions can be found in 14th century chronicles Makara ; Maryna 2 — until the first decade of the 21st century, Solotvyno was a salt-mining centre extraction stopped in