Minorities assimilation union; the unification and functioning of has become state politics during the education at the level of the entire country; governments of Tisza Klnean, Banffy ensuring equality and possibilities of Dezso and Tisza Istvan. In practice.
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Revue des Sciences Politiques Nr. In the second part the author highlights and analyzes some of the issues of the relation between the Romanian education system during the interwar period and national minorities from Transylvania. Keywords: national minorities, inter-ethnic relations, education system, confessional education, Romanianization, Hungarianization.
In practice. One can discuss on the presence relation to the majority, the minority group of ethnic, linguistic, religious minority groups is in a position of numeric inferiority and even from the antiquity, perpetuating till from this its social, political, cultural, of the present moment.
Since the establishment statute and social role. The determining, of the national state, during the modern discriminating element is of a quantitative, period, national minorities have been numeric nature, and in no instance of appeared, fact which would amplify and qualitative nature or value.
Today one a segment of the population which exceeds can speak of a great diversity of minorities, all the other segments2. Understanding the issue of national minorities in the 7 Revista de tiine Politice. Ethnic the time.
De La Internationalismul Socialist La Na PDF | Minority Group | Romania
He tried the same language, way of living, tra- to apply this concept to the new state- ditions, behaviour, religious belief, culture. National newport noutation speed dating which render the group the feeling minorities were circumscribed both to the of belonging and that of being different state and to majority nations. An attempt to define feeling of solidarity which allows it to keep the concept was made by Helmes Rosting, its culture, tradition, religion or language5.
The respective definition does the dating stranica hrvatska of the Council of Europe.
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Moreover, even fromown cultural, linguistic, religious identity, Jacques Duparc, referring to the definition which they conserve, take top aplicație de dating coreeană to the political of the concept of minority, appreciated that life of the respective state through their it is an abstract notion which does not own organizations and bodies, but also imply the existence of determinant features, through the organizations and bodies of but a juridical relation, whose meanings the state they belong to, trying to promote, varied within a certain poque and within through dialogue, political way, and, in a certain geographical area4.
It 8 Revista de tiine Politice.
From huma- between them, determined by a series of nitarian, democratic principles, in order to measures: the abolition of national borders, solve the new European political reality, to free movement of persons, the possibility prevent the possible conflicts, abuses of to work and establish the place of residence the majority against the minority, to in any part of the EU, to participate in the obviate the arguments among the states social-political life of newport noutation speed dating residing community, which had national minorities and the to be represented, single currency, common latters mother-states, the political and Community institutions.
The European Union diplomatic world of the great European turned motherlands of EU states into the powers tried to offer protection to national motherland of the states. Many of the minorities through international treaties, causes which generated and fuelled conflicts, putting them under the League of Nations tensions between newport noutation speed dating majorities and guarantee.
The independence of the states minorities have newport noutation speed dating or do not find succeeding the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, their place within the new reality and among which was Romania, was conditioned, social-political organization.
Through the along with the signing of the Peace Treaty, creation of the European citizenship the by the signing of a Treaty of the Minorities differences between majority and minority through which they bound themselves to tend to wipe out and the possible harshness ensure minorities equal treatment to that of the between them tends to disappear.
Under majority. Such a measure lead to different no circumstance are they perceived anymore, reactions among the succeeding states which or understood according to their ancient were forced to sign it, Romania having the meanings.
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On the contrary, in some Newport noutation speed dating most visible reaction of opposition to it. Member States, minority groups tend to get Prime-Minister Ionel Brtianu claimed that, a different meaning, that is of immigrant as regards Romania, the minorities issue groups which are constituted of Community was solved as the latter had equal rights to non-citizens, distinct both from the majority the majority.
Being pre-occupied with and from national minorities, and have as rendering full independence and sovereignty purpose to acquire the status of Community to Romania, of stating equal principles and citizen and all that the latter implies and applicable to all Member States of the devolves upon somebody. League of Nations, the Romanian prime- For the first time, ethnic minorities of minister highlighted: Romania would not language, race and religion have become a admit a special treatment that does not social and political issue, transferring also apply to all other sovereign states newport noutation speed dating in the field of international relations, since matter their size and position, as in such the signing of the Peace Treaties of Paris matters there are no great and small states, The Peace Conference should states that would subject to the newport noutation speed dating we have found the answer and solutions for understand to have here within the kingdom, the new political reality which appeared as much freedom and independence as in following the First World War through the any other great sovereign authority6.
The education system, the situation incompatible to the dignity we principles, values and language in which it claim for our state8 the Romanian prime- unfolded can have a contradictory action minister argued referring to the signing of in relation to minorities. On the one hand, the Treaty of the Minorities. In return, the absolutization of edu- to threats and blackmail, would determine cation in the minorities maternal language Newport noutation speed dating Brtianu to leave the Peace Conference can give birth to a discrimination process, proclaiming the resistance policy.
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Such of social inequality with the majority, can a situation was viewed and interpreted lead to their isolation and marginalization, leeteuk și kang sora datând în viața reală 2021 by the Romanian political class, to the impossibility of their participating to the opposition accusing him of lack of the social life, to the promotion of their political and diplomatic tact, of putting in own aspirations and ideals, to showing danger the relations with the great powers, their own human fund to advantage.
Such with his own allies and supporters of the a policy can lead to the appearance of Great Union. In such a situation, Ionel tensions and animosities between majority Brtianu quit.
Encouraged by the attitude and minorities, to the annulment of newport noutation speed dating of some successor states of the empire and communication, to social and ethnic such as Poland, which on July 26th, conflicts.
Romanian authorities wished to taking into account any proposition and make out of education an element of unity, promoting its own politics, decided to sign of liaison of the dating parramatta established state, of the Treaty on September 10th,putting dialogue and communication with all its Romania and other successor states before citizens, of putting the latter in state of the completed fact.
The new government equality in all the domains of social life.
Putting education under the control of Romanian authorities and 10 Revista de tiine Politice. The Constitution of promoted by Hungary with the support ofin use, was completely obsolete, Hungarian Transylvanian leaders. All national minorities were ensured of opposition, of counterpoint towards primary, secondary, private, confessional the Romanian authorities; or public education in their maternal - the political instability until had language, thus having the possibility to ended since the beginning of the liberal conserve their identity, cultural, linguistic, governance.
In order to put national As a consequence, until the adoption minorities in a state of equality with the of the Constitution of and of the majority and to ensure the dialogue and education laws ofthere was a period communication with all their citizens, newport noutation speed dating of transition, of cohabitation of the edu- remove any possibility of isolation, mar- cation systems form the Ancient Kingdom ginalization one ensured the newport noutation speed dating of the with the ones from the united provinces.
Romanian language at all education cycles The unification of the education and forms, still an aspect which gave birth system on the entire territory of Romania to disputes and controversies in the rela- was a necessary process, a condition for tions to the German and Hungarian minorities. A first problem constituted in the and sovereignty.
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A second problem was the diminish mocratic education system, under the con- in the percentage of confessional education trol and coordination of the state. Such a and the growth of the public, laic education, measure was absolutely necessary as, being under the states control and coor- followingin the United Romania dination.
As a reaction to the fact in the Romanian language, not financing that public education passed under the state confessional schools etc.
During the period the 3. A third problem was represented by number of confessional schools increased the imposition of the Romanian language from to The numeric growth of in the entire education system, no matter its confessional schools was determined newport noutation speed dating form, level, proportion of minorities, province. For the including of the Hungarianized Romanians; two minorities from Transylvania, the the association of education and religious Germans and the Hungarians, the purposes freedom could be a motive of the clerics in and objectives followed through the oppo- their protests both internally and inter- sition towards the imposition of the Romanian nationally, religious freedom being a very language were different: the German minority sensitive element and with high audience wished to keep its cultural, religious, to the public opinion; the use of confessional national identity.
In return, the leaders of schools as centres of propaganda and anti- the Hungarian minority conferred it strong Romanian agitation, in the accomplishment political connotations, turning it into a of Hungarys irredentist policies.
Because permanent motif of internal protest, but of these, the Hungarian minority, mostly, mostly international. This is why the Hungarian lead its children towards confessional edu- leaders spoke of the Romanian cultural cation, turning roundabout the public one, offensive of de-nationalization, the peril the Romanian state reacted towards the of minorities disappearance, Romania- increase in the number of confessional nization etc.
Negulescu control of the education legislation adoptedbut mostly C. Angelescu after ; the interdiction of subscribing, considered that the to these institutions of pupils of a different imposition, knowledge and use of the religion and confession than that of the Romanian language in this important field ethnic group that created and supported of the social life had as purpose the them; the obligation of the use of the following: the consolidation of the Romanian 12 Revista de tiine Politice.
Newport noutation speed dating assimilation union; the unification and functioning of has newport noutation speed dating state politics during the education at the level of the entire country; governments of Tisza Klnean, Banffy ensuring equality and possibilities of Newport noutation speed dating and Tisza Istvan. School and its affirmation of all its citizens, no matter the institutions were politicized, especially nationality, means of dialogue, communication during Minister Albert Apponyi, having as and participation in the social life of all purpose the creation of the Hungarian Romanian citizens; the diminish in the unitary newport noutation speed dating, of Hungarian conscience possibilities of using propaganda materials and identity which were based on the idea having irredentist purposes coming from of Hungarian citizenship according to Hungary and having access to the great mass which all individuals, no matter their of Hungarians; ceasing the process of ethnicity, compulsorily belong as citizens Hungarianization of Romanians from the to the unitary Hungarian nation.