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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the quality of lentic ecosystems in Romania by multi-criteria analysis. The score of the index for each lake was computed based on the data collected from the databases, and correlated with sample lakes used for validation of the methodology 1. A method derived from that proposed by Bangyu et al 49 has been developed. Full size table The computational results indicate a negative correlation between the state of degradation, the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas and the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas of the Natura network the probability level of 0.

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However, there is a weak correlation between the degradation state and Exposition Table 2. Full size table The computational results indicate a negative correlation between the state of degradation, the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas and the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas of the Natura network the probability level of 0.

Table 3 The results of the statistical analysis regarding the relationship between the state of degradation and variables within the river basin.

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Full size table The statistical analysis performed shows that there is no correlation between the Degradation State and Altitude, while between the Degradation state and the Relief units there is a weak negative correlation. The results indicate also a direct correlation between the state of degradation, the number of inhabitants without access to the sewerage and the population density in the lake basin, the correlation coefficient being 0.

It is important to study of the state of the lentic ecosystems both regarding salina ks dating pressures coming from human activity and the ones originating from climatic changes or other natural phenomena.

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However, the development of an assessment model that can be applied to all aquatic ecosystems, and lentic ecosystem in particular, is a challenge, because available data are not homogenous, each region and lake having its own particularities. Choosing the proper set of indicators that can be useful for the overall characterization of the quality of lentic ecosystems, will lead to a coherent implementation of biodiversity strategies.

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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the quality of lentic ecosystems in Romania by multi-criteria analysis. This assessment is part of a national project for implementation of a national policy on biodiversity, as a response to EU requirements. Over the time, the scientific literature identified various methodologies for the evaluation of the quality of water resources.

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Other authors used digital surface model DSM and a point dataset as the sources of observation and target locations for Geospatial analysis of lake scenery For integrative water quality management, Feng et al. Their method integrated three indices derived from three models for assessment of the risk due to nutrient dynamics A multi-attribute value theory to formulate an integrated water quality assessment method was used by Schuwirth 27for aggregation over multiple pollutants and time.

Another category of indexes that are used in evaluating the state of degradation of lacustrine ecosystems aim at analysis of the presence of degradation sources in supplying basin. For example, Mirzaei et al 19 calculated WRASTIC index for assessment of pollution risk, respectively degradation sources, from the watershed that feeds a water body.

Potential pollutant load index PPL was employed by Romanelli et al 18 for analyzing the presence and intensity of potential pollution sources from the drainage area of several lakes, with salina ks dating purpose of establishing degradation classes of the water body.

Evaluation of the quality of lentic ecosystems in Romania by a GIS based WRASTIC model

In the same study, the Lake Vulnerability Index highlighted the capacity of the water body to handle the impact generated by degradation sources, taking into account parameters like slope, soil permeability or aspect of slopes According to the characteristics of the study area, modified versions of WRASTIC index are to be salina ks dating in the literature, and were implemented by using additional criteria or eliminating some parameters Their results revealed that the activity in adjacent wetland areas exert a large impact on wetland integrity The model was validated by comparison with samples collected from the case study area.

The authors concluded that the method has advantages over other methods, as it includes a wide range of drivers and parameters that influence the water quality.

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The results obtained pointed that areas with high contamination risk are due to the unbalanced arrangement and compact of land uses in the neighborhood salina ks dating the aquatic ecosystems Using analytical survey and experimental studies Mirzaei et al 19 investigated the pollution risk for Zayandehrud river, Iran. Agricultural, industrial activities and population centers were the main causes of pollution in the study case area In Romania, the evaluation of aquatic ecosystems was performed by various researchers, either for a specific area or for a hydrographic basin.

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For example, Rosca et al 31 studied the impact of anthropogenic activity on water quality parameters of glacial lakes from Rodnei mountains. The factors taken in consideration were tourism and livestock. The pollution index was calculated based on three indices, salina ks dating on heavy metal influences, namely, the heavy metal pollution index indicating the quality of waters related to the heavy metals contentthe heavy metal evaluation index assessment of the quality of water with respect to heavy metals and the degree of contamination used to quantify the contamination level with the heavy metal.

The physico-chemical parameters pointed a good quality of the study case lakes. The conclusion of the authors was that minor anthropic alteration and a low anthropogenic impact is exerted in these areas.

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The only anthropic pressure on the aquatic systems in Rodnei Mountains was reported as being exerted by grazing activities Another paper described the assessment of actual water quality and sedimentological conditions of the Corbu lake, Western Black Sea coast. The ecological status of this lake was found to be salina ks dating good to weak classes for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates, moderate for sulphates and weak for detergents The impact of human interventions and climate changes on the hydro-chemical composition of Techirghiol lake Romania was recently investigated by Maftei et al Physico-chemical water quality salina ks dating of lake Brăneşti was investigated by Benciu et al The water quality parameters for the last 50 years were correlated with the anthropogenic pressure in the region.

Analysis of water and soil samples in the vicinity of this lake, revealed that parameters were within legal norms for both water and soil Another study presented by Dumitran et al 35 proposed an eutrophication model for describing the ecological behavior of a eutrophic lake. The physical model was mathematically transposed to a set of equations for analysing the selected parameters linked to eutrophication state.

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The resulted model showed a good correlation with the measured data It is to be noted that most of the available literature is based on the assessment of the water quality, by measurements of physico-chemical parameters, and calculation of pollution indexes. To our knowledge no extensive studies involved the study of the lentic ecosystems with respect to vulnerability and risk of pollution by using multicriterial analysis. Generally, the precautionary approach is applied by identifying and analyzing the categories of drivers that influence the degradation of lentic ecosystems, especially in the protected areas 3637 Three main categories of activities that generate environmental issues have been identified within protected areas included within the Natura Sites as follows: a agricultural activities and forestry practice; b sectoral activities industrial, commercial and tourism sectors ; c conservation policies management of protected areas, protection of different species, etc.

A cross-sectoral approach is needed in order to resolve medium-term environmental conflicts, thus being be able to extend the assessment towards various salina ks dating of protected areas and generating efficient policies for the management of resources 40 Identifying and analyzing the categories of conflicts that may be associated with lentic ecosystems provide the possibility of an efficient ecosystem management 22 The lakes from this case study comprise both natural lakes glacial, karst, karst-saline, ponds, lagoonsas well as ponds accumulation lakes, with an important role in ensuring the resources of water for the population and economic activities, as well as the development and maintenance of habitats and species of community interest birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, etc.

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Most of the lakes resulting from the analysis as being degraded and semi-degraded are located in the plains, at low altitudes, within areas covered with agricultural lands, industrial facilities and dense transportation routes. The lentic ecosystems characterized as being in a natural state resulting from the proposed methodology are mainly distributed in the high mountain areas and in the Danube Delta area.

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Thus, altitude, fragmentation salina ks dating the relief and accessibility are favorable factors regarding the natural state of water bodies, including lentic ecosystems. The high number of lakes characterized as degraded or semi-degraded compared to that of natural lakes is justified by the existence of a small number of lakes located at high altitudes, over m. It is to be taken into account that the degradation state classification is directly influenced by the data used in defining WRASTIC indicators, being generally derived data, which may explain the limitation of the method from this point of view.

The lack of correlation or poor correlation resulting from the statistical analysis between the degradation state and the indicators defining the HI index component part of the WRASTIC-HI indexrespectively the permeability, the exposure and the slope, highlight the insignificant role of these parameters in determining the state of lake degradation.

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However, the processes of erosion and sediment transport on the surface of the basins and their accumulation in lakes can influence the water quality of the lakes, their clogging, their functionality and the services offered, which are important factors in improving the management of the analyzed lakes The status of protected areas offers a high degree of protection by diminishing the anthropic activities and the negative effects on the lakes, being recommended that all economic salina ks dating be located outside these protected areas 43 the basins being vulnerable to human activities.

The local public administrations are directly interested in the management and protection of lentic ecosystems, many lakes being included in different categories of protected areas. Increasing the number of lakes in the natural state involves identifying degraded or semi-degraded lentic ecosystems outside protected areas and carrying out ecological reconstruction activities or diminishing agricultural and industrial activities in their vicinity.

The state of the lakes may also depend on the dynamics of the hydrophilic and hydrophilic vegetation, respectively on the hedge with vegetation cover of the water lily.

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In our study, the statistical analysis showed that there is no correlation between the state of degradation and the Coverage with vegetation of the water lily. Thus, in this case, the state of degradation of the lentic ecosystems is not influenced by this parameter, although, in some cases, remote sensing analysis revealed the presence of excess algae and aquatic plants in both natural and semi-degraded lakes The lakes located in the low plain areas are also affected by the eutrophication process, amplified by the reduced depth which ensures the rapid development of algae during the summerthe contribution of nutrients due to the agricultural activities in the vicinity and the salina ks dating of recreational activities.

The methodology used has taken into account the potential sources of degradation within the basin around the lake analyzed and is representing an alternative to the methods that involve direct laboratory analyses regarding the quality of the lake water.

The relevance of salina ks dating method proposed in this paper consists in identifying and analyzing the factors that generate degradation.

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Environmental sciences Abstract Globally, ecosystems are constantly degrading as a result of pressures derived from human activities and climate change. For working towards the restoration of the natural balance, it is necessary to evaluate the deviations induced in the ecosystems, to identify where the changes took place, to know what is their amplitude and to decide where it is possible to get involved. Many aquatic ecosystems are depreciated and their restoration is often difficult.